Glossary of Abbreviations and Terminologies
- Institutional Abbreviation
- Other Abbreviations
MoEF&CC - Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
MNRE - Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
MoP - Ministry of Power
CEA - Central Electricity Authority
CWC - Central Water Commission
CGWB - Central Ground Water Board
NPCIL - Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited
FSI - Forest Survey of India
NDMA - National Disaster Management Authority
NITI Aayog - National Institution for Transforming India
SECI - Solar Energy Corporation of India
POSOCO - Power System Operation Corporation Limited
SLDC - State Load Dispatch Centre
RLDC - Regional Load Dispatch Centre
SERC - State Electricity Regulatory Commission
CERC - Central Electricity Regulatory Commission
DST - Department for Science and Technology
NRSC - National Remote Sensing Centre
SOI - Survey of India
DISCOMs - Electricity Distribution Utilities
CPCB - Central Pollution Control Board
PARIVESH dashboard - Pro Active and Responsive facilitation by Interactive and Virtuous Single-window Hub (PARIVESH is a single window integrated system for Environment, Forest, Wildlife and CRZ clearances
INWEA - Indian Wind Energy Association
NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
IISc - Indian Institute of Science
BMTPC - Building Material and Technology Promotion Council
NDC - Nationally Determined Contributions
ToR - Terms of Reference
EC - Environmental Clearance
AQI - Air Quality Index
GW - Gigawatt
MW - Megawatt
BU - Billion Units
MU - Million Units
MWh -Megawatt - Hour
GWh - Gigawatt - Hour
TWh - Terawatt - Hour
Small Hydro -In India, hydro power plants of 25MW or below capacity are classified as small hydro power projects.
Decentralized Mini Grid - Stand -alone mini grid system to supply electricity to households in a particular parcel
Storage - is either battery storage or pump storage to store electricity from mainly renewable sources of electricity generation to address intermittencies
Bio Power - Comprises of Bio power has Biomass, Cogen and Waste to Energy
Oil & Gas - Comprises of Diesel and Gas Power Plants
Operational - Units or plants which are generating electricity
Retired - Units or plants that have been permanently decommissioned
Pipeline - Units or plants that are proposed or under construction
Non Fossil - Hydro, Nuclear, Solar, Wind, Small Hydro and BioPower Plants
Fossil - Coal, Oil & Gas Power Plants
Financial Year - From 1st April to 31st March
Power Purchase Cost - is the cost of purchasing electricity from power producers (GENCOs)
Plant Load Factor (PLF) - Plant Load Factor (PLF) is the ratio of actual power generated by the plant to the maximum power that could have been generated for a given time period. [Unit : percentage %]
Capacity Utilization Factor (CUF) - CUF is defined as the ratio between the actual energy generation of a power plant and the maximum gross energy generation possible in the period under operation. [Unit : percentage %]
PLF versus CUF (What is the difference) - In broader aspects both the term signifies plant performance. But we generally use CUF for the renewable energy power plant and PLF for non-renewable energy.
Auxiliary Consumption - It is the energy consumed by power generating equipment such as fans, motors, etc in the power plant.
Power Plants - Thermal Power Plant (i.e., Coal/Lignite Power Plants, Oil & Gas Power Plants); Hydro Power Plants; Nuclear Power Plants; Renewable Energy Sources (i.e., Solar, Wind, Small Hydro and Bio Power Plants)
Districts - For the purpose of aggregating wind power projects, given the varying capacities of various wind turbines we aggregated them on the basis of the location and hence, district implies the location of wind plants
Solar Farms - Solar farms (sometimes known as solar parks or solar fields) are the large-scale application of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations to generate electricity. They therefore often cover large areas of land (such as, 1 acre to 100 acres or more), and are usually developed in rural areas.
Installed Capacity - Maximum peak capacity that the system is designed to run at without causing any damage to it. [Unit: MW, GW].
Implementing Agency - Any department that are responsible for the overall operation
Commissioning date - refer to the date when the power plant was commissioned for operation, in case
GENCOs - Generating Companies
Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) - Central-owned enterprise in India, such as NTPC, DVC
Private Enterprise - An entity that operates under the ownership and management of independent companies
State government enterprise - An entity where the State or Local government has significant control, including state-owned electricity distribution utilities, state energy departments, etc
Design Heat Rate – It is the estimated or calculated heat rate by the power plants. It should be the endeavor of any power plant to operate the unit as near to their Design Heat Rate. [Unit: kcal/kWh]
Operational Heat Rate – The operational heat rate is defined as the total amount of energy required to produce one kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity by an electric generator or power plant. [Unit: kcal/kWh]
Heat rate has direct relation to the efficiency of the plant. The power plant is said to be efficient and operating efficiently when 1 unit of electricity is produced with the minimal heat input as possible (low operating cost for the power plant and lesser fuel). Therefore, lower the heat rate, better is the power plant’s efficiency.
Ramp Up and Ramp down – Ramp Rate in power generation expresses how quickly a power plant’s power output is changing, either ramping up (increasing) or ramping down (decreasing). The increase or decrease in output per minute is called the ramp rate and is usually expressed as megawatts per minute (MW/min).
Daily Generation - The amount of electricity produced in one day (i.e., 24 hours). [Unit: MU]
Annual Generation - The amount of electricity produced in a year (i.e., 365 days). [Unit: MU, BU]
Forced Outage – The shutdown of a generating unit or plant, for emergency reasons as a result of an unanticipated (or unplanned) breakdown.
Generation Loss due to the following reasons
Technical Plant Issues - Boiler, Boiler Auxiliaries, Turbine, Turbine Auxiliaries, Generator, Other Electrical Problems, Other Miscellaneous Problems
Technical Grid Issues - Transmission Constraints, Tripping of transmission line, Grid miscellaneous, Switchyard/ tripping of transmission lines/ bus bar problem / Switchyard/ Bus Bar, Grid frequency high/ low
Coal and other fuel shortage - Coal shortage, Feeding Problem, Lignite shortage, Coal diverted, Wet/ poor quality (coal/lignite), Coal transportation problem, Fuel supply & other misc. problems, No Fuel supply
Low scheduling - A “low schedule” is usually encountered in situations where low demand schedules are expected for a long period of time wherein, the load dispatch centre allocated a standard schedule at lower PLFs than declared capacity but well above technical minimum. Thus, a low schedule situation does not usually result in a full shutdown. The process is thus initiated by the system operator.
Reserve Shut Down “Reserve Shut-Down” (RSD) procedures are governed by The CERC‑approved POSOCO’s “Detailed Operating Procedure” for the same. The backing down process occurs in specific grid conditions such as low system demand, during Regulation of Power Supply, incidence of high renewables etc. When the schedule falls below technical minimum, the generator, in consultation with the discom/beneficiary, may decide to take a station or a unit thereof under RSD and ramp up the other running stations/units to better PLFs. In this case, the generators continue to get the fixed cost calculated on the basis of declared capacity.
No Demand from Distribution - no purchasing from DISCOMs
Raw Water Unavailability - Outages due to unavailability or shortage of water in the region due to drought or water stress in the area where the power plant is situated
Uneconomical Operations -“Uneconomical operations' ' shutdown are warranted by unforeseen changes in the operating situation of a generation plant which renders it economically not viable, for example, fuel price flare up due to change in law, technology obsolescence and the like. Shutdown is opted in such situations by the generator rather than incurring high variable costs which the consumers cannot be burdened with.
No Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) - power plant does not have a power purchase agreement
Generation Loss ( in MU) due to Outage - Energy loss due to shutdown of a generating unit or plant
CEA rate of Sale of Power - Average tariff approved by the general utilities [Unit : Rs/kWh]
Variable Cost - The power distributor can vary the unit rate of electricity during the duration of plan [Unit : Rs/kWh]
Fixed Cost - The unit rate of electricity remains the same for the fixed period of time by the power distributor [Unit : Rs/kWh]
Economic parameters - Comprises of Human Development Index [HDI] and Per Capita Income
Geographic parameters - Comprises of state and district wise forest cover (i.e., very dense, moderately dense, open forest and total forest) and biodiversity (i.e., national park, total number of wetlands and wildlife sanctuaries) and location wise natural disaster risk (i.e., cyclone, earthquake and flood)
Performance parameters - Comprises of annual generation, plant load factor, capacity utilisation factor and auxiliary power consumption
Water parameters - Comprises of river basin, water linkages, water level pre and post monsoon and water stress
Stack emissions - Emission of gases after the combustion process into the atmosphere through chimney
Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) - It is a technology to remove sulphur dioxide from the flue gases from conventional power plants
Run of the river - It is the type of hydroelectric generation. In this process the natural flow and elevation drop of a river are used to generate electricity.
Dam - dam is a structure built across a river or stream to hold back water. Dams have two main functions. The first is to store water to compensate for fluctuations in river flow or in demand for water and energy. The second to raise the level of the water upstream to enable water to be diverted into a canal or to increase ’hydraulic head’ –– the difference in height between the surface of a reservoir and the river downstream. The creation of storage and head allow dams to generate electricity
Types of Dam
Masonry Concrete Dam - Masonry dams are built using either stone masonry or brick masonry. Cement mortar is used to join the masonry blocks.
Forebay Dam - forebay is an artificial pool of water in front of a larger body of water. The larger body of water may be natural or man-made. A dam built upstream of the main reservoir, called a forebay dam or pre-dam. Forebays may also be used upstream of lakes to prevent siltation.
Concrete Gravity Dam - Concrete is the most commonly used material to construct a dam. Most of the major dams in the world are built using concrete.Concrete Gravity Dam is an example of masonry dams.
Rockfill Dam - Rock fill dams are constructed using rocks and boulders. Upstream side of dam is built with dry rubble masonry and loose rock fill is provided on the downstream side. A reinforced concrete slab layer is also provided on the upstream side to make it watertight.
Masonry and Earthen Dam - a dam in which most of the body is made from masonry materials and the anti seepage structure is made from low-permeability soil.
Saddle Dam - A saddle dam is an auxiliary dam constructed to confine the reservoir created by a primary dam either to permit a higher water elevation and storage or to limit the extent of a reservoir for increased efficiency.
Earth-cum-Rock Fill Dam - dam built up by compacting successive layers of earth, using the most impervious materials to form a core and placing more permeable substances on the upstream and downstream sides.Also known as embankment dam, earth dam / rock fill dam and earth fill dam.
Concrete Straight Gravity Dam -Concrete is the most commonly used material to construct a dam.Concrete Gravity Dam is an example of masonry dams.
Subcritical - Subcritical coal power plant operates below critical pressure and temperature (i.e., 221 bar and 373˚ C) of water. In this process, natural circulation is produced by heating of the risers. The water/steam mixture leaving the risers is separated into water & steam in the drum. The steam flows into the superheater and the water is returned to the evaporator inlet through down comers.
Supercritical – Supercritical coal power plant operates above the critical pressure 250 bar and temperature 374˚C of water i.e., above the temperature and pressure at which the liquid and gas phases of water coexist in equilibrium, at which point there is no difference between water gas and liquid water. This results in higher efficiencies, i.e., 45%.
Ultra Supercritical - Supercritical coal power plants also operate at temperatures and pressures above the critical point of water, i.e., the temperature and pressure at which water vapor and liquid water are indistinguishable. This technology leads to lower emissions (including carbon dioxide and mercury), higher efficiency (above 45%)and lower fuel costs per megawatt.
Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) - This technology is the combination of coal gasification and the gas turbine combined Cycle (GTCC) system which leads to significantly enhanced power generation efficiency and environmental performance.
Combined Cycle Gas Turbine - A combined-cycle power plant uses both a gas and a steam turbine together to produce up to 50 percent more electricity from the same fuel than a traditional simple-cycle plant. The waste heat from the gas turbine is routed to the nearby steam turbine, which generates extra power.
Open Cycle - Most gas turbines operate on an open cycle in which air is taken from the atmosphere, compressed in a centrifugal or axial-flow compressor, and then fed into a combustion chamber. Here, fuel is added and burned at an essentially constant pressure with a portion of the air.
Nuclear Reactor - It is a system that produces and controls sustained nuclear chain reaction of fission, they are filled with a specially designed, solid uranium fuel and surrounded by water, which facilitates the process.
Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) - It is a type of nuclear reactor that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide, i.e., D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator. PHWR commonly uses unenriched natural uranium as its fuel. The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures to avoid boiling, without forming steam bubbles.
Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) - It is a type of nuclear reactor that uses light water (ordinary water) as their coolant and neutron moderator. BWRs actually boil the water. In this process water is converted to steam, and then recycled back into water by a part called the condenser, to be used again in the heat process.
Pressurised Water Reactor - A nuclear power reactor design in which natural water is heated to a very high temperature by fission, kept under high pressure (to prevent it from boiling), and converted to steam by a steam generator. The resulting steam is used to drive turbines, which activate generators to produce electrical power.
Light Water Reactor - It is a term used to describe reactors using ordinary water as coolant, including boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs).
European Pressurized Reactor - It is a third generation nuclear reactor. It works on the same principle as PWR. There is no important technological breakthrough with the third generation but it is designed to be safer and more efficient. The efficiency of the reactor is improved by running the turbine at a higher pressure and therefore higher temperature.
Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor -The Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a 500 MWe fast breeder nuclear reactor presently being constructed at the Madras Atomic Power Station in Kalpakkam. The prototype fast breeder reactor has a negative void coefficient, which will ensure a high level of passive nuclear safety. This means that when the reactor overheats (below the boiling point of sodium) the speed of the fission chain reaction decreases, lowering the power level and the temperature.
Solar Power Plant (grid-connected) - A solar power plant uses sunlight that strikes the solar panels to generate DC power. This DC power is converted to AC power via the inverter and the AC power is supplied (or fed) into the electrical grid.
Wind Power Plant - Wind power plant uses wind to generate electricity. In this process wind flows across the wind turbine, its blades capture the wind’s kinetic energy and rotate, turning it into mechanical energy. This rotation turns an internal shaft connected to a gearbox, which increases the speed of rotation and that spins a generator that produces electricity.
Small Hydro-Power Plant - Hydropower uses the power of moving water (kinetic energy) to generate electricity. Small hydropower systems are installed in small rivers, streams, etc. This type of hydroelectric power is used for the local community. Small-scale hydropower produces between 1 and 30 MW.
Biomass Power Plant - Biomass is organic material that comes from plants and animals, such as wood pellets, grass clippings, even dung, etc. and it is a renewable source of energy. In this process combustion of agricultural waste or woody materials to heat water and produce steam, which spins turbines and generates electricity.
Bagasse Power Plant - It is the dry fibrous material leftover after juice is extracted from sugarcane. It is used as a biofuel for the production of electricity.
Cogeneration - The concept of simultaneous generation of electricity and thermal energy is called cogeneration. It produces two forms of energy from a single fuel source. One of the forms of energy must always be heat and the other may be electrical or mechanical energy.
Waste to Energy - This type of plant converts municipal and industrial solid waste into electricity and/or heat for industrial processing and for district heating systems. The energy plant works by burning waste at high temperatures and using the heat to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that generates electricity.
Tenders – A tender is an invitation to bid for a project